Entries by Luis M. Romero Rodríguez

Hola Followers! Content Analysis of YouTube Channels of Female Fashion Influencers in Spain and Ecuador

The objective of this article is to analyze the contents and unconventional advertising narratives of the eight most important women in the world of fashion in Spain and Ecuador in relation to the number of followers and points of view, in order to identify the discursive and esthetic strategies and narratives that may reflect the keys to their experience as prescribers, through a content analysis based on the interpretation of the five most viewed videos between 2018 and 2019 from four Spanish to four Ecuadorian YouTube channels (ME = 40) based on a three-round Delphi analysis sheet with a validity of W = 0.828 and α = .947. The content is analyzed from a qualitative perspective, which allows an in-depth exploration of the dimensions and indicators of impact and influence on YouTube channels. The research presents the findings that the influencers reviewed use crutches, idioms, and set phrases to identify with their audience. The audiovisual narrative is simple, maintaining its amateur style. Advertising positioning in the channels analyzed is given by identifying the brand in the spoken discourse, the presence of brand logos, advertisements and promotions, and the presence of products of the sponsoring brands.

Workplace happiness as a trinomial of organizational climate, academic satisfaction and organizational engagement

The present research aims to study the correlations among organizational climate, academic satisfaction and organizational commitment as factors that influence happiness at work by applying a structural equation model to Spanish National Police cadets. A descriptive, quantitative, correlational, exploratory and cross-sectional empirical study was carried out. A measurement instrument was applied to a target population of 397 student-inspectors enrolled for the 2018–2020 academic year on the executive scale at the National Police School (EPN) in Spain. A sample of 190 surveys was obtained, of which 33 were open competition, 52 were competitive examinations and 105 were selective seniority. Structural equation modeling shows that academic satisfaction, organizational climate and practical organizational commitment are recommended variables for assessing happiness within organizations. On the other hand, there is a bit of a positive relationship between happiness and practical organizational commitment. The same is not true for the parameters of academic satisfaction and organizational climate. This study fills a gap in the literature on the analysis of governance models in public administration. This is particularly relevant in professions that require a high degree of engagement with citizens, such as police officers. According to the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first works to analyze corporate governance in police cadet schools in Spain under the happiness management approach. It contributes by offering a better understanding of the psychosocial variables that affect the existence of good governance.

Populist attitudes and perceptions of public opinion and the media: A comparative correlational study between Spain and Colombia

Populism has experienced a worrying growth in the last decade in different locations around the world. This globalizing process has been enhanced by the immediacy, interaction, and participation of social networks, cyber media, and other digital platforms. In this context, the perception that young people give to this type of phenomena constitutes a field of study of great interest for the Social Sciences. This research examines the correlations between populist attitudes, perception of public opinion, and opinions about the media in students of Communication Sciences in Colombia and Spain. Methods: Based on an exploratory-correlational approach and a quantitative design, this research has analyzed the reflections and priorities of a group of n=499 undergraduate and graduate students related to Communication Sciences in Colombia and Spain. Results: The study has confirmed the leading role played by social networks in the formation of radical opinions while detecting a decline in the influence of television among young audiences. In addition, the study establishes that the index of public opinion perception is higher in Spain, while the index of media perception or anti-elitist attitudes is higher in Colombia, and there is no clear link between populist attitudes and a political ideology of extremes. Conclusions: The correlations examined note a tendency towards disaffection and discredit towards politics in general, especially by the young population, which affects actors and institutions. It alludes to the preference of this population group for interacting and informing themselves on digital platforms and presents populist attitudes, without clear ideological identification, but with a clear tendency towards simplification of messages, thus emphasizing the need to educate the critical view of citizens and to work on media literacy as a crucial strategy against the growth and expansion of populism.

Symbolic-discursive violence and new media: An epistemological perspective

The following research studies, from a theoretical perspective, the different forms of symbolic and discursive violence and the transmission of hate speech through new media. The main objective is to understand the consequences of symbolic violence through language and how this affects freedom of expression. Reflective and critical argumentation is highlighted through an exploratory analysis carried out by a literature review, where it is determined that the confrontational narrative used by the media contributes to the dehumanization, demonization and polarization of specific collectives.

The cinema of cruelty in streaming: elements of perversity in Chernobyl and years and years

This study aims to diagnose how the cinema of cruelty has been inserted into mainstream culture through the current streaming series, analysing the elements of the eroticism of perversity and the cinema of cruelty in the series Chernobyl and Years and Years (HBO: 2019). This is done with the design of a content analysis sheet based on the interpretation of theoretical constructs, validated by expert judgement. The results diagnose an excess of trivialised cruelty, evidencing the spectator’s desensitisation to the images, as well as their fascination with them. In this sense, the growing audiovisual success of misanthropic, entertaining, and pornographic narratives is evident. It is concluded that discomfort, fun, horror pornography, and their respective prestige, are installed in contemporary popular television culture, reproducing a relationship between the depressing and the entertainment.

The «ventriloquist effect» of the international news agencies. Theoretical review and incidence on new forms of misinformation

This research reflects, from a theoretical perspective, how most of the international events that reach the rest of the media are disseminated through news agencies, causing the well-known «ventriloquist effect»: multiple media, a single voice; and explores how online platforms have fostered this phenomenon, causing a structural increase in misinformation. In this sense, the research aims to understand the development of the «ventriloquist effect» with the progress of «new media» and, as a consequence, the increase of disinformation. For this grounded theory documentary analysis, the methodological procedure was based on the bibliographic review of the literature in the international reference databases (WoS and Scopus), carrying out an analysis of primary studies to synthesize the information. The results indicate, among other issues, that social networks foster spaces of structural misinformation in the current ecosystem. In conclusion, the relationship between the “ventriloquist effect” and misinformation, which arises from reticularly and information-digital decentralization, is determined.

How to Botox’ on YouTube: Influence and Beauty Procedures in the Era of User-Generated Content

The current media environment is complex and has important effects on all aspects of life, including beauty and health. In this sense, YouTube has become one of the main contexts for the dissemination of tutorials and content related to medical procedures such as the application of Botox. Thus, the present study constitutes the first exploratory analysis of YouTube videos in Spanish related to this procedure. A preliminary analysis of 221 YouTube videos yielded a final sample of the 50 most viewed videos within this genre. The analysis was carried out through a quantitative content analysis assessing the popularity of the videos, contact and emotive strategies by the creator, the credibility conveyed, and the characteristics of information about the procedure itself. Results suggest that these influencers align with mainstream Internet celebrity culture in practices that aim at increasing their following and views, as well as calls for subscriptions and visits to other platforms and profiles. Moreover, they include different strategies to establish their credibility but emphasize personal experience. The positive portrayal of the procedure, including positive emotions and content that highlights the benefits, is interesting and supports the commercial nature of much of the content.

Coworking spaces and virtual learning communities in social networks: Case Study of #ElClaustrodeIG on Instagram

Social networks are consolidated as spaces for the exchange of valuable content. It is not surprising to find spaces for the exchange of good teaching practices in virtual learning communities, so the objective of this study is to analyze, through the case study of #ElClaustrodeIG on Instagram, the educational content focused on teaching that is shared for the Ibero-American community in Spanish, as well as the analysis of the users who share their experiences and good practices in this social network. In order to do this, content analysis is first carried out, through an analysis sheet to 300 posts and a questionnaire is applied to 130 users of this hashtag on Instagram in order to analyze their patterns of use, their interests and motivations, their training in ICT and social networks, as well as the impact that the use of this social network has on their professional development and the gratification they expect. The results show that most of the publications are about good practices for primary and preschool education while most of the users think that Instagram is an ideal space for non-formal learning, applying in the classrooms many of the good practices shared in this coworking space.

Public Television In Andean America: History, Ownership Changes, and Criticism From Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

This paper analyzes and describes public television in Andean America through the historical, hermeneutic, and non-participating observation method, carrying out a critical review of the literature, legal provisions, and official websites. The research reveals the appearance and precariousness of Andean-American public television, its financing, and particular administration forms. Twenty-four stations were identified as having evidence of public ownership, of which only eight are close to the principle of public service TV. There is little evidence of the existence of public service television because of the political-ideological control of the public media by the various governments, especially by populist regimes. Also, public television in the Andean region suffers from the cultural contamination of banal commercial content and infotainment.

From the Immediacy of the Cybermedia to the Need for Slow Journalism: Experiences from Ibero-America

The pressure of immediacy, the dictatorship of the click, and the growing avalanche of fake news have impacted journalism. Citizens are particularly skeptical about the information they receive from the press, especially in the digital media. Journalism is faced with the need – or almost the urgency – to rethink, reinvent and redefine messages, routines, and processes. In this regard, various initiatives, especially in Ibero-America, have opted for slow journalism as a reaction and response to information devaluation. The commitment to journalism that appreciates context and cares for narrative has driven this “slow” news trend that believes in “author journalism” and stories’ humanization. Through the methodology of the case study, of a qualitative and exploratory nature, 12 experiences of “slow journalism” media in Ibero-America are reviewed, with a particular interest in their themes, contents, aesthetics, and sources of financing. It is concluded that these media are one of the few that carry out investigative journalism, although to subsist, they depend to a great extent on international cooperation agencies since their contents and aesthetics are elitist in comparison with their conventional digital peers, which reduces their capacity of maintenance by subscriptions and advertising.