https://www.romero-rodriguez.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/no-hate-2019922_1280.jpg 215 324 Luis M. Romero Rodríguez https://www.romero-rodriguez.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/logo-rr-295x70-1.png Luis M. Romero Rodríguez2023-08-30 12:23:312023-12-28 12:27:30The Process of The Transfer of Hate Speech to Demonization and Social Polarization
We are living through a time of major political changes due to the rise of populist leaders and the resurgence of extreme ideological movements. The emergence of this phenomenon is due, to a large extent, to the ease with which these political actors can disseminate and spread their messages without any limits through social networks, leaving aside the former “fourth power” of the media as filterers and reinterpreters of information. Generally, the formula used by these leaders and movements is usually based on symbolic social division and polarization through hate speeches that allow demonizing their adversaries while antagonizing the issuers: a discursive “us” against “them” based on verbal violence to dehumanize an “exogroup.” We want to discuss the importance of understanding the process of communicational transfer—which begins with hate speech and evolves into demonization and social polarization—as a strategic basis for creating an ideal scenario for the growth and strengthening of populist discourse, which is reductionist and simplifying in nature.
https://www.romero-rodriguez.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Otherness.jpg 213 323 Luis M. Romero Rodríguez https://www.romero-rodriguez.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/logo-rr-295x70-1.png Luis M. Romero Rodríguez2023-08-27 08:25:502023-12-28 12:44:47Otherness as a form of intersubjective social exclusion: Conceptual discussion from the current communicative scenario
This study aims to review the theory based on «otherness» as a form of social exclusion and symbolic violence from the constructions of realities of the media, with particular emphasis on the ethics and aesthetics of language and its role in materializing identity differences. A search for specific criteria and boolean algorithms is carried out in Web of Science and Scopus on «otherness» [AND] «social exclusion», to then submit the emerging results to a co-occurrence matrix by citations with VOSViewer v. 1.6.13. From the relation tree of the most cited documents [min = 7] of the downloaded articles, a critical/analytical reading is made. «Otherness» is reviewed to a greater extent from a Western perspective, and more specifically, from a Eurocentric one. This implies that the study of «otherness» is not sufficiently analyzed by Asian or African authors, who are excluded from the analysis. In this sense, «otherness» is understood as a theoretical construct and as any symbolic construction of the other (phenotypically, but also in ideology, values and customs), but which carries a load of stereotypes that can become polarization, demonization, ergo and violence. Revisiting «otherness» as an informative construct becomes imperative in light of the emergence of extremist groups and xenophobic parties, as well as separatist policies such as Brexit or the Catalan split in Spain. Few articles contribute to elaborating a complete conceptual construct on «otherness» as an epistemological category of communication and information, so this research effort attempts to compile its theoretical discussion.