Patterns and Actors of Disinformation: Analysis of Debunked Hoaxes in Spain in 2022

This research examines the patterns followed by disinformation in Spain through the fact-checking activities of, the leading fact-checking organization in Spain. We sought to answer three research questions: 1. What are the predominant topics of the hoaxes debunked by 2. Who is responsible for the creation and dissemination of these hoaxes? and 3. In what formats and platforms are these hoaxes generally distributed? For this purpose, we conducted a quantitative content analysis of 729 hoaxes fact-checked in 2022 by Maldito Bulo. 40.7% of the debunked hoaxes were related to social issues, while 37.2% focused on political affairs. Regarding those responsible for the creation and dissemination, most of the hoaxes came from unidentified sources, although when the identity is known, the most frequent contributors are social media accounts, alternative and partisan pseudo-media, and journalists. These results explore the general disinformation scenario in Spain, using fact-checking as an approximation and discussing its implications.

The «ventriloquist effect» of the international news agencies. Theoretical review and incidence on new forms of misinformation

This research reflects, from a theoretical perspective, how most of the international events that reach the rest of the media are disseminated through news agencies, causing the well-known «ventriloquist effect»: multiple media, a single voice; and explores how online platforms have fostered this phenomenon, causing a structural increase in misinformation. In this sense, the research aims to understand the development of the «ventriloquist effect» with the progress of «new media» and, as a consequence, the increase of disinformation. For this grounded theory documentary analysis, the methodological procedure was based on the bibliographic review of the literature in the international reference databases (WoS and Scopus), carrying out an analysis of primary studies to synthesize the information. The results indicate, among other issues, that social networks foster spaces of structural misinformation in the current ecosystem. In conclusion, the relationship between the "ventriloquist effect" and misinformation, which arises from reticularly and information-digital decentralization, is determined.

From the Immediacy of the Cybermedia to the Need for Slow Journalism: Experiences from Ibero-America

The pressure of immediacy, the dictatorship of the click, and the growing avalanche of fake news have impacted journalism. Citizens are particularly skeptical about the information they receive from the press, especially in the digital media. Journalism is faced with the need – or almost the urgency – to rethink, reinvent and redefine messages, routines, and processes. In this regard, various initiatives, especially in Ibero-America, have opted for slow journalism as a reaction and response to information devaluation. The commitment to journalism that appreciates context and cares for narrative has driven this "slow" news trend that believes in "author journalism" and stories' humanization. Through the methodology of the case study, of a qualitative and exploratory nature, 12 experiences of "slow journalism" media in Ibero-America are reviewed, with a particular interest in their themes, contents, aesthetics, and sources of financing. It is concluded that these media are one of the few that carry out investigative journalism, although to subsist, they depend to a great extent on international cooperation agencies since their contents and aesthetics are elitist in comparison with their conventional digital peers, which reduces their capacity of maintenance by subscriptions and advertising.

The Demonization of Islam through Social Media: A Case Study of #Stopislam in Instagram

This article studies the process of demonization, its consequences, and how social media contribute to the formalization of its axiology. The demonization of societies aims to create social subjects that fit into the idea of the “other” by exposing them to compulsory invisibility. This research’s main objective was to examine how demonization is used as a weapon of oppression to devalue specific individuals through the hashtag #StopIslam and Instagram’s role in this process. The methodology used for this purpose has consisted of an empirical and quantitative analysis of the most recent (1 January 2020–31 July 2020) posts on Instagram with #StopIslam, analyzing the images and the content. The study has determined how, through social media manipulation, erroneous ideas are transmitted that prevent the Islamic collective’s integration, especially in European countries. The conclusions will reflect hate speech and how the Islamic world’s demonization results in the Muslim community’s stigmatization, racism, and Islamophobia. Although there are different articles related to demonization and hate speech, there are not many scientific resources that explain these variables on Instagram and how it affects the inclusion of the Muslim community in Europe, significantly when the time spent on the Internet is growing.

Journalism that tells the future: possibilities and journalistic scenarios for augmented reality

The Gartner Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies highlights “augmented human technologies” as one of their emerging trends, while the Future Today Institute alludes to the potential of extended reality (digitally manipulated environments encompassing virtual and augmented reality) for the development of new applications with great informative value. Based on this, the current study brings together in-depth interviews with experts who analyze the possibilities of augmented reality (AR) in journalism, including its weaknesses and some proposals for new journalistic scenarios. The study concludes that, according to experts, the use of AR in daily systems and applications is key to establishing this technology. In addition, experts stress the need to carry out sociological and ethical studies of its impact, as well as experimental research on the use of augmented senses in humans, including visual and haptic augmentation and hearing.

Information Quality in Latin American Digital Native Media: Analysis Based on Structured Dimensions and Indicators

The current communicative ecosystem has profoundly transformed journalistic work and the media, generating with great eagerness the emergence of digital native media that do not follow the logic of their conventional peers. Although the advent of these media is not entirely negative, as they create multiple voices that contribute to pluralism, their quality has undoubtedly been questioned on several academic fronts. This work analyzes the most important Latin American digital native media by number of accesses (traffic), using a taxonomy of evaluation of dimensions of the informative quality, in which aspects such as informative sources, uses of international news agencies, correction of contents and factuality levels, ideological plurality in their opinion contents, among others, are taken into consideration. Of the emerging results, the ‘use of statistical indicators’ was the least rated (32.5%), mainly due to a lack of data journalism in the media studied. It is also worth noting that the indicator ‘comments and monitoring’ obtained the second-lowest rating, indicating an absence of conversation between the media and its audience through the comments section of each content.

The Irresponsible Self-Regulation of Media in Spain: High-Grade Alcoholic Beverage Advertising in Sports Radio Programmes

Media must behave ethically towards their audiences since the latter play a fundamental role in shaping reality and public opinion. In this sense, the conduct of all media must be based on social responsibility, with ethical values and in compliance with laws and regulations. The present study analyses the presence of advertising for high-alcoholic-content beverages in sports programs through mentions by the host radio stations or collaborators, taking into consideration that the European directive, as well as Spanish legislation, prohibits the broadcasting of this type of advertising through audio-visual media (television and radio) channels, particularly in sports programs. To this purpose, three stations have been selected for analysis (COPE, Cadena Ser and Onda Cero) according to their daily audience numbers as reported by the General Media Study (a total of 9,000,000 daily listeners). The study was carried out between January and December 2017. A total of 355 mentions of high-alcoholic-content beverages were found, being the figure of the host radio the one that made more this type of advertising. Likewise, this research shows that most mentions of alcoholic beverages occurred in the afternoon (16:00–19:59), with rum (55.8%) and herb liqueurs (36.6%) being the most frequently advertised. It is also important to note that COPE, a radio station that has been sanctioned by the Spanish CNMV for this type of advertising, is precisely the radio station that has the highest frequency of alcoholic beverage advertising in this study (91.8%), which is evidence of the failure of the media self-regulation system in Spain.

Comparative analysis of media framing in international news agencies east-west. Case Study: Attack at Istanbul airport

Social realities are discursive constructs, so that attitudes and representations are the reflection of an informative approach. In this sense, the cultural and linguistic gaps between different civilizations, together with a discursive construction of a war nature, could be creating the breeding ground for a continuous confrontation between East and West. The present study analyzes the different rhetorical frames of the international news agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press about the terrorist attack at the Istanbul (Turkey) airport on July 28, 2016. A quantitative study of the figures speech and the most repeated topics in the headlines of the attack is carried out. The power of the media in public opinion and the construction of reality generate a discussion about how these news are spread and their effects. The objective is to compare the different rhetorical frames in both civilizations and to identify if stereotypes are projected and if this framing contributes to the spectacularization of the conflict. The main result is that there are no significant discursive differences, which leads to the conclusion that east-west rhetorical figures are used to produce a certain effect in the population, among those that highlight the euphemisms, disfemisms, demonization and discursive polarization, resources that serve to emphasize fear and create even larger gaps of social significance

Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP) of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11). Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

Dimensions and Indicators of the Information Quality in Digital Media

The current information ecosystem, crossed by a logic mediamorphosis, is increasingly generating the emergence of digital media and information portals that do not follow the formal publishing procedures of conventional media. The crisis of traditional media has also changed the way we become informed. However, information quality remains a factor for discussion in the absence of unified criteria for analysis. In this regard, the question arises: how do we evaluate and assess the quality of information in digital media? This study aims to seek agreement between academics and media professionals on the areas and dimensions of information quality of digital media according to objective or quantifiable values. For this, a taxonomy of the dimensions related to information quality was created, based on the review of scientific literature and further evaluated and validated by 40 experts, including scholars and media professionals alike, who focused on verifying the classification´s reliability. As a result, three macro areas of information quality, containing 21 areas, inherently comprised of a total of 75 dimensions, were validated. Lastly, this study proposes a structured model that will allow for the analysis of information quality of digital media, both in its pre-information phase catalogued in the media-business and on the media-workers’ socio-occupational characteristics, as well as its final product and informational content.